After using glue on your woodworking project, especially if you have never done it before, a common question is how long will it take to dry. Getting this right is key. You risk ruining your project if you remove the clamps too early or if you start sanding prematurely.
First, we’ll discuss the difference between drying and curing time. Then, we’ll address the drying times, which is what you are looking for. As you can imagine, different wood glue types have different drying times. PVA (polyvinyl acetate) glues, such as Elmer’s glue and Titebond Original, II and III require 30 minutes to 1 hour to dry. Drying time is similar for epoxy glues. Polyurethane glues like Gorilla‘s take 2 hours to dry. Hide glues are the ones that take longer, around 3 hours. Curing time in most cases is 24 hours.
Wood Glue Drying Time vs Curing Time. What’s the Difference?
Drying and curing are the two stages that glue undergoes to create a solid joint. It’s important to know the difference because after drying is over you can remove the clamps and carry on with your project.
First, there’s the drying stage. There’s a sort of a change of state happening, where the glue goes from liquid to solid. The water or solvent contained in the glue evaporates, leaving only the adhesive components. It’s very important to notice that also the liquid contained in the wood needs to vanish in order for the bond to form. That’s why dry wood tends to bond better and faster, and why environmental humidity plays a key role.
As a rule of thumb, remember that higher temperatures, drier wood and lower humidity speed up the drying process. The opposites make it go slower.
After the drying phase, there’s a curing stage, which is way longer. Commonly, it lasts from 24 to 72 hours. The glue goes through a chemical process, forming crystals, and reaches its nominal strength. In order to not compromise the resistance of the joint, it’s better not to put it under load before the curing process is over.
Types of Wood Glue and Drying Times
Now, let’s discuss every glue type separately. It will also be useful to decide which kind is best for you if you still haven’t bought it. If you are looking for the drying time of a certain wood glue brand, check out the next paragraph. You may find the answer you need there.
We’ll stick with the basics here. We’ll go through the most popular glue types available on the market. Chances are your glue belongs to one of the following categories.
Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA) Glue
This is the most common glue type. It’s also called white glue or wood glue. It also works for different materials than wood, such as plastic and paper. Many famous brands belong to this category: Elmer’s and Titebond, to name a couple. It’s definitely not the strongest type available, but it has many benefits:
- it’s extremely cheap. For example, you can get a gallon of Elmer’s School Glue for a little more than 20 bucks;
- health-wise, it’s very safe. It doesn’t exhale toxic fumes, and it’s not irritating for your skin. Perfect if you want to initiate your son to woodworking.
Let’s return to the article’s topic: how long does PVA wood glue take to dry? On average, it can take up from 30 minutes to 1 hour to fully dry. Again, environmental conditions might lengthen or shorten this period. Recommended curing time is 24 hours in most cases.
It’s much stronger than PVA glue. It works with almost any material. Other than wood, you can use it on metal, ceramic, concrete, just to name a few. The most famous brand belonging to this group is Gorilla glue. Polyurethane glues come with some unique features:
- PU glue isn’t water-based like PVA glue. That’s an advantage: with PVA, wood may draw in some water from the glue, causing the joint to swell. This can’t happen with polyurethane glue;
- Once fully cured, it’s 100% waterproof. That makes this glue ideal for outdoor projects;
- This type of glue requires some moisture to cure perfectly. That’s the reason why it works very well with high moisture wood.
There are also a couple of disadvantages:
- PU glue is more expensive than PVA;
- it’s not as safe as PVA glue. It can develop toxic fumes, and it’s also bad for your skin. When using this glue, it’s advisable to use glasses, a breathing mask, and gloves.
How long does polyurethane glue take to dry? It takes a little longer than PVA glue to dry, up to 2 hours. Curing time is similar. Generally, it cures completely in 24 hours.
This glue is also known as “Animal glue”, due to its organic nature. Nowadays, there are synthetic hide glues available, like the one made by Titebond. It’s not quite as popular today as it was in the past, since there are better alternatives available. It’s still used for special applications that require frequent on-the-run changes, like restoration and instrument making. That’s because it’s water-soluble, which makes it reversible with some hot water.
Obviously, it’s not good for outdoor applications, where the heat and moisture changes might compromise its resistance.
Generally, hide glue is sold in granules and needs to be prepared with water. Titebond offers a hide glue that is already liquid and ready to use. Health-wise, hide glues are very safe since they are non-toxic.
Due to its characteristics (i.e. its reversibility with water), hide glue takes up to 3 hours to dry. To fully cure, it needs 24 hours.
You probably know this one as “super glue” or something like that. It’s used for many applications in a wide range of fields, thanks to its strength and drying speed.
CA glue comes with some safety issues. It can bond skin in a matter of seconds, so it needs to be handled with care. Moreover, it also produces toxic fumes. Wearing a breathing mask is advisable.
The main downside of this glue is the low shearing strength, which is why it’s not used for furniture making in woodworking (and for its price). It works at its best for filling cracks and voids, typically combined with sawdust.
As expectable, cyanoacrylate is very fast to dry: your project will be ready for the next stage in 10 minutes maximum. Curing will take about 24 hours, though. It depends on the jointed surfaces’ qualities, moisture level, and type of CA glue used.
This is a very strong alternative to the aforementioned glues. It can be used on various materials other than wood, like metal, stone, and glass. When it comes to woodworking, epoxy glue is often used as a gap filler, or for small repairs. As opposed to cyanoacrylate glue, epoxy is made of 2 components (an epoxy resin part and a hardener one) which need to be mixed together to gain adhesive properties.
The result is a 100% waterproof joint with a very clean, transparent look.
After mixing, when epoxy glue undergoes the chemical process that creates the bond, exposure to moisture can result in a weaker joint.
The main advantage when compared to CA glue is a longer setting time, which leaves you room for repositioning. Gorilla manufactures a 2 part epoxy glue, provided with syringe dispensers for perfect storage.
When it comes to drying and curing time, epoxy is similar to PVA glue. It takes epoxy glue from 30 to 1 hour to dry and about 24 hours to fully cure. If cured with heat, it will result in a stronger joint.
How Long Does My Glue Take to Dry?
If you went to the local store and asked the clerk for wood glue, chances are they gave you a bottle of one of the following brands. Usually, there should be an indication of drying and curing time on the flacon. If that’s not the case, check the following info.
How Long Does Gorilla Glue Take to Dry?
- Let’s start with the Waterproof Polyurethane Gorilla Glue, which we already mentioned before. Drying time is 1 to 2 hours (after that, clamps can be removed); it takes 24 hours to cure.
- Gorilla’s epoxy glue has a 6 minute set time (in which repositioning is possible). Then it takes 30 minutes to dry before you can handle the piece or apply any light pressure. It will take 24 hours to cure, after that you can apply consistent loads.
- Gorilla also manufactures super glues. Same as all cyanoacrylate glues, the drying time is very fast. It takes 10 to 45 seconds to dry, 24 hours to fully cure.
How Long Does It Take Elmer’s Glue to Dry?
Elmer’s school glue is one of the most famous PVA glues. It takes 1 hour to dry; for it to fully cure, you’ll have to wait around 24 hours.
How Long Does Titebond Glue Take to Dry?
Titebond manufactures a wide variety of glue. I’ll go through some of the most famous ones; leave a comment if I missed some.
- Let’s start with PVA glues. Titebond mainly manufactures 3 of them:
- Titebond Original. This PVA glue is perfect for interior use since it’s not waterproof. Setting time is reasonable, 4 to 6 minutes.
- Titebond II Premium. This PVA glue is better than the original strength-wise. It can be used for outdoor projects, but it’s not 100% water-resistant. I’d say it’s more weather resistant. Setting time is 3 to 5 minutes.
- Titebond III Ultimate is the strongest of the 3. It’s 100% waterproof and has a longer setting time, 8 to 10 minutes.
When it comes to drying and curing time, all 3 Titebond’s PVA glues are similar. It’s suggested to leave the clamps on for 30 minutes to 1 hour. The curing time is 24 hours.
- Titebond Genuine Hide Glue. Same as all other hide glue, it takes a while to dry and fully cure. 3 hours should be enough to dry on paper, while experience suggests it’s best to leave the clamps on overnight to avoid any problems. Curing takes 24 hours.
- Titebond Polyurethane Glue has a drying time of 45 minutes, while it cures in 6 hours.
- Titebond Quick & Thick Glue. This is a modified PVA glue that has broader applications, such as glass and stone. It comes in handy in many DIY projects too. Same as the others PVA glues, give it 1 hour to dry and 24 hours to cure.
- Titebond Instant Bond Glue. This glue was designed for wood, to join surfaces that are difficult to clamp. Its strength makes it ideal for other materials, too. Drying time is fast, from 30 to 60 seconds. The curing time should be 24 hours.
How Long Does Lepage Wood Glue Take to Dry?
Finally, let’s spend a few words on Lepage wood glues. Same as Titebond, this brand manufactures a variety of glue types. Let’s discuss the drying time of a few of them.
- LePage Express Quick Dry Wood Glue. It’s a valid PVA glue alternative to the aforementioned brands. The main benefit is the quick dry time, only 10 minutes. It makes it ideal for complex pieces where multiple joints are required, such as cabinet making. Curing time is 24 hours as usual.
- LePage Multi-Purpose White Glue. This PVA wood glue dries in 25 minutes, curing time is 24 hours.
- LePage Pro Carpenter’s Glue. Another valid PVA glue, a solid choice for cabinetry and carpentry. Drying time is 30 minutes.
- LePage Outdoor Weatherproof Wood Glue. This is LePage’s go-to choice for outdoor projects that require weather resistance. Clamping time is 60 minutes, while it fully cures after 24 hours.
- LePage Polyurethane Glue. Same as all PU glues, it’s a super strong glue choice when 100% waterproofing is needed. Drying time goes from 1 to 2 hours, while it fully cures in 24 hours.
- LePage No More Clamp Wood Glue. LePage claims that this glue doesn’t require you to clamp your project, while it leaves 10 minutes of repositioning time. Curing time is 24 hours, couldn’t find a drying time.
Frequently Asked Questions
Now let’s answer some of the most frequent questions that come up when discussing glues and drying times.
How Long Does Wood Glue Need to Dry Before Sanding?
If you need to perform light sanding, you should at least wait the glue’s drying time before removing the clamps and start working on it. Make sure you handle your project with care since you shouldn’t apply much pressure on it before the glue is fully cured. Otherwise, you risk compromising the final joint’s strength.
If you need to do some heavy sanding, with a lot of pressure applied, wait the full curing time, which typically implies leaving the clamps on overnight. To be honest, even if it might be a bit overkill, I would wait 24 hours in any case, just to be sure.
How Long Does it Take Wood Glue to Dry in Cold Weather?
It’s hard to give a definitive answer since it depends on the glue’s characteristics. Broadly speaking, cold weather slows down the drying process for most wood glues. This is especially true for water-based glues like PVA glue, which requires water evaporation for bonding.
On the other hand, polyurethane glue and cyanoacrylate glue drying time are hardly affected by cold weather.
How Long Does it Take for Glue to Dry on Skin?
Drying time on the skin depends on the glue’s characteristics. PVA or hide glues leave you the time to clean your hands with a cloth and wash them before drying on the skin. On the contrary, cyanoacrylate glues (also known as superglues) take just a few seconds (as low as 10 seconds) to dry on your skin. That’s another solid reason to wear gloves when handling fast-drying glues, on top of the health considerations I already made.
How Long Does Wood Glue Last?
If stored properly, wood glue can last up to a couple of years. It could even last longer than that. You might ask yourself if wood glue keeps its bonding power after being opened for some time. Don’t worry about that. As long as it’s liquid, wood glue is good to go same as you just opened the flacon.
So what are the ideal storage conditions so that your glue lasts longer? In this matter, the keyword is “keep it cool and dry”. Keep your glue at room temperature should be fine. Make sure it doesn’t go below 40°F or above 100°F. Make sure you close the bottle perfectly to avoid unpleasant surprises next time you need it 😉
Is Wood Glue Stronger Than Wood?
The strength of a joint depends on many factors, like humidity, temperature, moisture of the wood. Many things can go wrong. If a joint is made with wood glue in a workmanlike manner, then it is definitely stronger than the surrounding wood. If you apply force to a glued joint, wood will break first almost 100% of the time.
Final Thoughts: How do I Know …
You might have noticed that almost all drying times aren’t very precise. Many times, it’s the manufacturer itself that gives you a range. So how long should you really wait before removing clamps? How do you know when the glue is fully dry?
It’s hard to give a final answer. Due to external conditions like environmental humidity, temperature, wood moisture level, drying time might be longer (or shorter) than what is stated by the producer. My suggestion is to be as conservative as possible. If you can afford it, wait for the glue to be fully cured. Alternatively, double the standard drying time.
It’s always better to wait a little longer. If you remove the clamps too early, even a small movement might compromise the chemical bonding process that is still undergoing, which will result in a weaker joint.